|Number of watchers on Github||6337|
|Number of open issues||533|
|Average time to close an issue||5 days|
|Average time to merge a PR||12 days|
|Open pull requests||66+|
|Closed pull requests||28+|
|Last commit||over 1 year ago|
|Repo Created||over 6 years ago|
|Repo Last Updated||about 1 year ago|
|Organization / Author||dnschneid|
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crouton is a set of scripts that bundle up into an easy-to-use,
Chromium OS-centric chroot generator. Currently Ubuntu and Debian are
supported (using debootstrap behind the scenes), but
Chromium OS Debian,
Ubuntu, and Probably Other Distros Eventually Chroot Environment doesn't
acronymize as well (crodupodece is admittedly pretty fun to say, though).
It stands for ChRomium Os Universal chrooT envirONment ...or something like that. Do capitals really matter if caps-lock has been (mostly) banished, and the keycaps are all lower-case?
Anyone who wants to run straight Linux on their Chromium OS device, and doesn't care about physical security. You're also better off having some knowledge of Linux tools and the command line in case things go funny, but it's not strictly necessary.
Like virtualization, chroots provide the guest OS with their own, segregated file system to run in, allowing applications to run in a different binary environment from the host OS. Unlike virtualization, you are not booting a second OS; instead, the guest OS is running using the Chromium OS system. The benefit to this is that there is zero speed penalty since everything is run natively, and you aren't wasting RAM to boot two OSes at the same time. The downside is that you must be running the correct chroot for your hardware, the software must be compatible with Chromium OS's kernel, and machine resources are inextricably tied between the host Chromium OS and the guest OS. What this means is that while the chroot cannot directly access files outside of its view, it can access all of your hardware devices, including the entire contents of memory. A root exploit in your guest OS will essentially have unfettered access to the rest of Chromium OS.
...but hey, you can run TuxRacer!
You need a device running Chromium OS that has been switched to developer mode.
For instructions on how to do that, go to this Chromium OS wiki page, click on your device model and follow the steps in the Entering Developer Mode section.
Note that developer mode, in its default configuration, is completely insecure, so don't expect a password in your chroot to keep anyone from your data. crouton does support encrypting chroots, but the encryption is only as strong as the quality of your passphrase. Consider this your warning.
It's also highly recommended that you install the crouton extension,
which, when combined with the
targets, provides much improved integration with Chromium OS.
That's it! Surprised?
crouton is a powerful tool, and there are a lot of features, but basic usage is as simple as possible by design.
If you're just here to use crouton, you can grab the latest release from
https://goo.gl/fd3zc. Download it, pop open a shell
shell and hit enter), and run
sh ~/Downloads/crouton to
see the help text. See the
examples section for some usage examples.
If you're modifying crouton, you'll probably want to clone or download the repo
and then either run
installer/main.sh directly, or use
make to build your
crouton. You can also download the latest release, cd into the
Downloads folder, and run
sh crouton -x to extract out the juicy scripts
contained within, but you'll be missing build-time stuff like the Makefile.
crouton uses the concept of
targets to decide what to install. While you will
have apt-get in your chroot, some targets may need minor hacks to avoid issues
when running in the chrooted environment. As such, if you expect to want
something that is fulfilled by a target, install that target when you make the
chroot and you'll have an easier time. Don't worry if you forget to include a
target; you can always update the chroot later and add it. You can see the list
of available targets by running
sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t help.
Once you've set up your chroot, you can easily enter it using the
enter-chroot command, or one of the target-specific
start* commands. Ta-da! That was easy.
shelland hit enter) and run
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t xfce
sudo enter-chroot startxfce4or, as a special shortcut,
-eparameter when you run crouton to create an encrypted chroot or encrypt a non-encrypted chroot.
-kparameter to specify a file or directory to store the keys in (such as a USB drive or SD card) when you create the chroot. Beware that if you lose this file, your chroot will not be decryptable. That's kind of the point, of course.
-rparameter specifies which distro release you want to use.
sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r listto list the recognized releases and which distros they belong to.
xiwiversion to your chroot.
Installing the extension and its target gives you synchronized clipboards, the option of using Chromium OS to handle URLs, and allows chroots to create graphical sessions as Chromium OS windows.
startcliwill launch a new VT right into the chroot.
croutonversion -u -d -cfrom the chroot (run
croutonversion -hto see what those parameters actually do).
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -u -n chrootname. It will update all installed targets.
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t xiwi -u -n chrootname
This will also make 'xiwi' the default xmethod.
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t xorg,xiwi -u -n chrootname
sudo edit-chroot -b chrootnamebacks up your chroot to a timestamped tarball in the current directory. Chroots are named either via the
-nparameter when created or by the release name if -n was not specified.
sudo edit-chroot -r chrootnamerestores the chroot from the most recent timestamped tarball. You can explicitly specify the tarball with
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -f mybackup.tar.gz
Unlike with Chromium OS, the data in your chroot isn't synced to the cloud.
edit-chrootcommand; it likely does what you need it to do.
-pto specify the directory in which to install the chroot and scripts. Be sure to quote or escape spaces.
sudo sh /path/to/enter-chroot), or use the
-cparameter to explicitly specify the chroots directory.
shelland hit enter) and run
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -d -f ~/Downloads/mybootstrap.tar.bz2
-rparameter if you want to specify for which release to prepare a bootstrap.
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -f ~/Downloads/mybootstrap.tar.bz2. Make sure you also specify the target environment with
This is the quickest way to create multiple chroots at once, since you won't have to determine and download the bootstrap files every time.
This is great for automating common tasks when creating chroots.
sudo delete-chroot evilchroot
sudo edit-chroot -d evilchroot, which I suppose makes it a bit of a deceptive Swiss Army knife friend...still good?
-n, break them, then make new, better ones!
-Plets you specify one (or disable it).
brightness. You can assign this to keyboard shortcuts to adjust the brightness of the screen (e.g.
brightness up) or keyboard (e.g.
brightness k down).
sudo startxfce4 -b
croutonpowerd -i command and argumentswill automatically stop inhibiting power management when the command exits.
-t touchimproves touch support.
/etc/crouton/sharesfile, or read all about it in the wiki.
Running another OS in a chroot is a pretty messy technique (although it's hidden
behind very pretty scripts), and these scripts are relatively new, so problems
are not surprising. Check the issue tracker and file a bug if your issue isn't
there. When filing a new bug, include the output of
croutonversion run from
inside the chroot or, if you cannot mount your chroot, include the output
cat /etc/lsb-release from Crosh.
That's great! But before your code can be merged, you'll need to have signed the Individual Contributor License Agreement. Don't worry, it only takes a minute and you'll definitely get to keep your firstborn, probably. If you've already signed it for contributing to Chromium or Chromium OS, you're already done.
If you don't know what to do with your time as an official Contributor, here's some suggestions:
croagh? Fork crouton, add the distro, and create a pull request.
There's a way For Everyone to help!
croutonversion(or the output of
cat /etc/lsb-releasefrom Crosh) when you submit the bug.
crouton (including this eloquently-written README) is copyright © 2016 The crouton Authors. All rights reserved. Use of the source code included here is governed by a BSD-style license that can be found in the LICENSE file in the source tree.