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The Ada Microkernel Project

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Last commit about 5 years ago
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                The Ada Microkernel Project (TAMP)


Copyright 2011-2012, Luke A. Guest & David Rees, All Rights Reserved.

License is GPL v2 until further notice and is subject to change during development.

Prebuilt toolchains

https://www.dropbox.com/s/koxes5ve57iqdvz/tinyada-libs.tbz2 https://www.dropbox.com/s/273e1pbez0qgqkp/tinyada-arm-none-eabi-4.9.0-20140122.tbz


The aim of this project is to create a simple microkernel using Ada as the implementation language.

To get the toolchain built, enter the thirdparty directory, and copy the config-master.inc file to config.inc, edit config.inc and then run the following command to build the native toolchain:

./build-tools.sh -t native

This will compile and install the latest version of GCC (4.6.1) to the directory of your choice. With a Debian Squeeze machine, this process takes approximately 5.3GB of disk space.

The build times on my machine are as follows:

Native: Last Process Took: 170m37.16s ARM : Last Process Took: 34m13.37s

As the native toolchain is bootstrapped it is compiled 3 times and then we check it explicitly, the following are my results of the testsuite (C, Ada, C++):

    === gcc Summary ===

of expected passes 78926

of unexpected failures 34

of unexpected successes 29

of expected failures 235

of unsupported tests 1101

/home/laguest/src/mine/tamp/thirdparty/build/native/gcc-4.6.1/gcc/xgcc version 4.6.1 (GCC)

make[2]: [check-parallel-gcc] Error 1 (ignored) make[2]: Leaving directory `/home/laguest/src/mine/tamp/thirdparty/build/native/gcc-4.6.1/gcc' Test Run By laguest on Mon Jan 9 15:58:46 GMT 2012

    === acats Summary ===

of expected passes 2321

of unexpected failures 0

    === gnat Summary ===

of expected passes 869

of unexpected failures 1

of expected failures 10

of unresolved testcases 1

of unsupported tests 2

    === g++ Summary ===

of expected passes 27536

of expected failures 164

of unsupported tests 359

The toolchain has been built on the following machines:

  • Ubuntu 10.4; GNAT/GCC 4.4.3
  • Debian Squeeze; GNAT/GCC 4.4.5, GNAT/GPL GCC 4.3.6

You then need to build a target toolchain, here we are targeting ARM: NB. Currently, on my machine, this process requires approximately 1.2GB free disk space to build the native toolchain and the arm-none-eabi toolchain.

./build-tools.sh -t arm-none-eabi


After building the toolchain, you will then require a runtime library for the board you intend to build TAMP for.


Where can be stm32f4.

N.B: Just a quick note to say that GNAT is extremely flaky. I did manage using a previous toolchain build to build an RTS using gnatmake and a project file; for some reason, this is not working providing me with an internal compiler error (or ICE):

arm-none-eabi-gcc -c -gnat05 -gnatg -O2 -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections --RTS=/home/laguest/src/mine/tamp/thirdparty/../rts/boards/stm32f4 -I- -gnatA /home/laguest/src/mine/tamp/rts/src/common/g-souinf.ads Exception name: SYSTEM.ASSERTIONS.ASSERT_FAILURE Message: namet.adb:655

arm-none-eabi-gnatmake: INTERNAL ERROR. Please report.

So, for the moment, I will use a makefile with the build-rts.sh script.


We intend to target the following architectures initially:

  • ARM, using the STM32F4DISCOVERY board.
  • PIC32, using the ChipKIT UNO32 board.

We will expand on the supported targets as we progress.

Getting started

TAMP uses GCC-4.6.1 due to the total inability of previous versions to build an Ada cross compiler. We've managed to use the information from [12] & [13] to create an Ada compiler targetted to a Zero Footprint Runtime so we can start to build an application for bare hardware and still have some support from the language, like exceptions.

So the first thing you will need is a toolchain:

1) Native Toolchain for your host OS, you need the same version of GNAT to build GNAT. 2) Cross Toolchain for the target you want to build TAMP for (i.e. ARM)

cd thirdparty cp config-master.inc config.inc

Edit config.inc for your enviroment, i.e. installation directory. For help on commands: ./build-tools.sh --help

Note: You can use sudo to install as root, but that would create root owned dirs.

By default the native compiler will also run the testsuite.

**** IMPORTANT!!!! ****

If you decide to use the SVN GCC tree rather than a snapshot of GCC 4.6, you will need to update the tree yourself if you want to get a newer revision:

cd src/gcc svn update

N.B: I've enforced this as using the script to update the tree causes the patches to be overwritten and the build will fail, not only that, the cross build will completely destroy the TAMP native build! It is very important that this is understood!


Building the native compiler will also run the testsuite on GNAT, there is no flag to turn this on/off yet so you will require the following packages:

dejagnu, expect, tcl, bison, flex, patch.

libusb for stlink, see https://github.com/texane/stlink.

Common problems

  • When building the cross gnattools, if the following error occurs:

make.adb:7388:07: Create_Temp_Output_File is undefined

GNAT is not using the right version of the compiler to build itself! Check that the native tools have built and installed themselves properly into $TAMP otherwise the gnatmake found will be the system one and s-os_lib may not have Create_Temp_Output_File subprogram defined.

  • The configure script has stated that GNAT Tools will not be built:

Make sure the following flag is not on the configure line -disable-libada

The new patch seems to work!

Here are the instructions on building the toolchain for native and arm-none-eabi.

I've added a 4.6.1 patch that attempts to enable GCC to build fully without horrible hacks, I have managed to get this to build with no errors. The patch is based on the info from [13].

I tested this with the following packages:

gcc-4.6.1 (C, C++, Ada) binutils-2.22 newlib-1.19.0 gdb-7.3a

Before you try this, make sure there are no arm-none-eabi-* tools in your $PATH

Obviously, you will require the gcc-4.6.1.diff patch applied to GCC.

Even though I mention above in the common problems I totally forgot about that and yes, you do have to build the native GCC first.

1) Extract all source archives. 2) Make symbolic links from gcc to mpc, mpfr, gdb, gmp: cd gcc-4.6.1 ln -s ../mpfr-3.0.1 mpfr ln -s ../gmp-5.0.2 gmp ln -s ../mpc-0.9 mpc ln -s ../gdb-7.3 gdb

3) Native

../../../src/gcc-4.6.1/configure --prefix=$HOME/opt/tamp --enable-multilib --enable-shared --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --enable-languages=c,c++,ada --without-ppl --without-cloog --with-system-zlib --disable-libgomp --without-libffi --without-libiconv-prefix --disable-libmudflap --disable-nls --disable-libstdcxx-pch &> ../log.native.gcc.config.txt

make -j4 bootstrap &> ../log.gcc.make.txt make install &> ../log.gcc.make.install.txt

export PATH=$HOME/opt/tamp/bin:$PATH

4) Cross

../../../src/binutils-2.22/configure --prefix=$HOME/opt/tamp --target=arm-none-eabi --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --disable-nls --disable-shared --disable-threads --with-gcc --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --without-ppl --without-cloog &> ../log.binutils.config.txt

make -j4 &> ../log.binutils.make.txt make install &> ../log.binutils.make.install.txt

../../../src/gcc-4.6.1/configure --prefix=$HOME/opt/tamp --target=arm-none-eabi --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --with-newlib --disable-nls --disable-shared --disable-threads --disable-lto --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --enable-languages=c --disable-libssp --without-headers --without-ppl --without-cloog &> ../log.gcc1.config.txt

make all-gcc &> ../log.gcc1.make.txt make install-gcc &> ../log.gcc1.make.install.txt

../../../src/newlib-1.19.0/configure --prefix=$HOME/opt/tamp --target=arm-none-eabi --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --disable-nls --disable-shared --disable-threads --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --without-ppl --without-cloog &> ../log.newlib.config.txt

make -j4 &> ../log.newlib.make.txt make install &> ../log.newlib.make.install.txt


../../../src/gcc-4.6.1/configure --prefix=$HOME/opt/tamp --target=arm-none-eabi --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --with-newlib --disable-nls --disable-shared --disable-threads --disable-lto --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --enable-languages=c,c++,ada --disable-libssp --without-ppl --without-cloog &> ../log.gcc2.config.txt

make -j4 &> ../log.gcc2.make.txt make install &> ../log.gcc2.make.install.txt


When building with gcc-4.6.2, there is a failure in newlib, apparently the fix is to add this


to the configure command, but this also fails later down the line in GCC itself. So, I will not be using 4.6.2 until we can get a patch.

Sample outputs

$ arm-none-eabi-gnatlink -v

GNATLINK 4.6.1 Copyright (C) 1995-2010, Free Software Foundation, Inc. Usage: arm-none-eabi-gnatlink switches mainprog.ali [non-Ada-objects] [linker-options]

mainprog.ali the ALI file of the main program

-f force object file list to be generated -g Compile binder source file with debug information -n Do not compile the binder source file -R Do not use a run_path_option -v verbose mode -v -v very verbose mode

-o nam Use 'nam' as the name of the executable -b target Compile the binder source to run on target -Bdir Load compiler executables from dir --GCC=comp Use comp as the compiler --LINK=nam Use 'nam' for the linking rather than 'gcc'

[non-Ada-objects] list of non Ada object files [linker-options] other options for the linker

$ arm-none-eabi-gnatls -v

GNATLS 4.6.1 Copyright (C) 1997-2010, Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Source Search Path: /home/laguest/opt/tamp/lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/4.6.1/adainclude/

Object Search Path: /home/laguest/opt/tamp/lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/4.6.1/adalib/

Project Search Path: /home/laguest/opt/tamp/lib/gnat/

I think I finally have something to build on.


I've submitted the following bug as the compiler cannot create a libgnat.a from a GPR file, this has to be done via make, it is no longer a blocker:

http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=47717 - CLOSED

Using Long_Long_Integer in a divide generates a call to __aeabi_ldivmod, which means we could really do with sorting out a proper target build for GNAT so we don't have to hack it together. This will then build GCC support libs.

LPCXpresso1769 JTAG

We need to remove the LPC-Link board from the LPXpresso1769 board. This then leaves us open for an external JTAG debugger. The following are my notes and given I know next to nothing about electronics, some help here would be appreciated.

These are from [5]:

  J4 Xpresso1769 side (page 4: SWD/JTAG Interface)


Pin 2 = TRST_N (From page 5: LPC176X Side) Pin 12 = SRST??

I came to the conclusion that Pin 12 would be the soft reset if pin 2 is the test reset. Or are these the other way around?

External JTAG interfaces

This section will list various external JTAG debugger's and their pinouts and we will gradually provide schematics for connecting them to J4 on the LPCXpresso1769 board.

Opendous-JTAG [7], [10]

Pin Function LPCXpresso 0 TDI 10 1 TMS 4 2 TRST ?? 3 SRST ?? 4 TCK 6 5 TDO 8

USBprog [8]

Would this be possible?

FTDI V2DIP1-32 [9]

Would this be possible? Cheap, OpenOCD already works with the FTDI chip. Just need to know which pins on this board would become with JTAG pins.

From oliver117 (on #Ada - Oliver Kleinke):

J4 pin connections



1 Vcc | 2 TMS 3 GND | 4 TCK 5 GND | 6 TDO 7 RTCK | 8 TDI 9 GND | 10 nRESET/nSRST

=> ARM JTAG Header -> Board 1 -> 2 2 -> 4 3, 5, 9-> 16 4 -> 6 6 -> 8 7 -> (no RTCK on board, connect to GND) 8 -> 10 10 -> 12 (optional 5v) -> 14





[1] Cortex-M3 Technical Reference Manual: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.ddi0337i/index.html

[2] ARMv7-M Architecture Reference Manual: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.ddi0403c/index.html

[3] Procedure Call Standard for the ARM Architecture: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.ihi0042d/index.html

[4] Run-time ABI for the ARM architecture: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.ihi0043c/index.html

[5] LPCXpresso1769 schematics: http://www.embeddedartists.com/sites/default/files/docs/schematics/LPCXpressoLPC1769revB.pdf

[6] Strict Conformance to the ARM: http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.6.0/gnat_rm/Strict-Conformance-to-the-Ada-Reference-Manual.html#Strict-Conformance-to-the-Ada-Reference-Manual

[7] Opendous-JTAG: http://code.google.com/p/opendous-jtag/

[8] USBprog: http://www2.embedded-projects.net/index.php?page_id=165

[9] FTDI V2DIP1-32: http://uk.farnell.com/ftdi/v2dip1-32/module-dev-32-pin-1x-usb-vnc2/dp/1825829

[10] eStick: http://embsys.technikum-wien.at/staff/horauer/estick/estick.php

[11] GNAT Pro User's Guide Supplement for Cross Platforms: http://www.adacore.com/wp-content/files/auto_update/gnat-cross-docs/html/gnat_ugx.html

[12] GNAT Pro User's Guide Supplement for High-Integrity Edition Platforms: http://www.adacore.com/wp-content/files/auto_update/gnat-hie-docs/html/gnathie_ug.html

[13] Ada05 compiler for ARM based systems: http://www.zsk.p.lodz.pl/~morawski/Dyplomy/Praca%20dyplomowa%20p.%20Horna.pdf

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